Exploration and colonization of the United States

The first European establishments on the current North American territory were the Spaniards of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida (San Agustín, founded in 1565 by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés) and the French, who from the San Lorenzo extended through the Mississippi Valley.

history colonization united states usa
The explorers found a scattered Amerindian population , in which the Iroquois and Algonquian groups stood out in the Great Lakes and the Appalachian Mountains; the Muscogi group from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, and the Sioux group west of the Mississippi.

The first permanent British colony , after the unsuccessful attempt of Sir Walter Raleigh (1584-1589), was that of Jamestown (1607), in Virginia , dedicated to the exploitation of tobacco and rice plantations.

The massive arrival of English settlers in the seventeenth century was channeled by trading companies and great lords (Lord Baltimore received Maryland, and the Duke of York, New Jersey). Other groups of settlers arrived as refugees, fleeing the intolerance of the Anglican Church. They were the Puritans of the Mayflower, who in 1620 formed the embryo of Massachusetts, and the Quakers , who in 1681 made Pennsylvania their refuge. Thousands of Europeans joined this original nucleus.

In 1763 there were 13 colonies on the Atlantic slope , with a total population of 1,500,000 inhabitants, clearly differentiated: to the north, New England made up of the colonies of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut, in which a powerful bourgeoisie.

In the south the colonies of Maryland. Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina and Georgia, who based their economy on tobacco, rice and cotton plantations, and their society was dominated by an oligarchy of slave planters.

The colonies of the center New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania, by their activity and sort of life, identified more with the colonies of the north.

The frictions with the French and Spanish establishments culminated in the Seven Years War (1756-1763), in which Britain obtained from France Canada and eastern Louisiana, and Spain, Florida .

The military and economic contribution of the colonies in the triumph determined the awareness of the settlers, who confronted the metropolis when it tried to impose monopolistic economic measures.

the first US constitution
Signature of the United States Constitution
Initiated the armed insurrection (1775), the Declaration of Independence (1776) of the thirteen colonies proclaimed popular sovereignty and the inalienable rights of the person, but only reserved for white people.

The settlers’ militias, under the command of George Washington , with the support of the French army and European revolutionaries (Lafayette, Kosciuszko, etc.), definitely defeated the British army forces in 1781, and in 1783 the Treaty of Paris He recognized the independence of the 13 colonies .

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *